Minggu, 23 Oktober 2011

The Original Language of the Human

The Original Language of the Human
Language experts find clues scattered throughout the vocabulary and grammar of the world about how the sound of 'proto-human languages' native. Recent research results show, the original language of this sounds like a way of talking Yoda, the tiny green Jedi from 'Star Wars'.

There are a variety of wording used in the languages of the world. Some, such as English, using the arrangement of subject-verb-object (SVO) as in the phrase 'I love you'.

Others, such as Latin, using the arrangement of subject-object-verb (SOV) as in the sentence 'I Like'. In rare cases, the composition of the object-subject-verb (OSV), object-verb-subject (OVS), the verb-object-subject (VOS) and verb-subject-object (VSO) is also used.

The Original Language of the Human
In a new paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Director of the Santa Fe Institute Program Merritt Ruhlen and Murray Gell-Mann in the Evolution of Human Language opinion, the original language of humans using the order SOV.

"This language has been spoken a small population of East Africans who seem to create fully modern language and then spread it all over the world and replace the language of others," said Ruhlen.

The conclusion the researchers came after a family tree showing the language that they made the historical relationships between languages in the world. This can be found in all the Romance languages (Italian, Romanian, French, Spanish) comes from the Latin language, spoken in Rome 2,000 years ago.

The Original Language of the Human
Latin language family is itself a branch of the larger trees, which is also a branch of other languages including German, Slavic, Greek, Indian and others. Together, all these languages form the Indo-European language family.

Language is the most suitable, like a puzzle piece with all the other language families in the world. "These families are identified by finding words in a set of language similar to each other but not found elsewhere," said Ruhlen.

In the family tree of languages, and Ruhlen Gell-Mann found different patterns in the wording changed when a branch is lost from the mother tongue language. "What we found, the distribution of six such wording does not vary randomly. In contrast, the distribution of six types of arrangement is very structured and linguistic change in the makeup line was clearly there, "said Ruhlen.

Of the 2,000 languages in the appropriate modern family tree, the researchers found, more than half use SOV language order. Languages that use the structure SVO, OVS and OSV are all directly derived from SOV language and never vice versa.

For example, French has SVO structure derived from the Latin language has SOV structure. In addition, language has VSO and VOS composition always comes from SVO languages. So, all the language down from the original SOV word order, "That leads to the conclusion, the wording of origin of all modern languages must have come from SOV," said Ruhlen.

The Original Language of the Human
What a coincidence, the mother of all mother tongue is SOV? The researchers said it was not. Preceding studies and Ruhlen Gell-Mann, Tom Givon linguist at the University of Oregon argued, SOV is the arrangement of the first word on how children learn language.

He found, SOV word order appears most naturally in humans. According to these experts, if it is true, so strange to find language to change the wording when evolved. Indeed, no one really knows the reason the wording changed.

"We found, said changes in a very precise way. But the fact remains, half a world language still has SOV word order because there was no change in wording. The data show how the wording changes but could not predict if the wording is changed, and I really do not understand why, "Ruhlen said closing the interview.

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